Band excitation PFM images of a 2 µm - thick PbZr0.44Ti0.56O3 thin film. It shows both ferroelectric and ferroelastic domain walls, with the film adopting a c/a ferroelastic structure. The direction of tilt of the domain walls into the film can also be observed. Imaged on a Cypher AFM, 2 µm scan.
Sample courtesy H. Funakubo, Tokyo Institute of Technology, images courtesy of R. Vasuden and S. Kalinin, ORNL.