BaTiO3 Single Crystal
PFM amplitude overlaid on AFM topography (left) and PFM phase overlaid on topography (right) on (100) oriented BaTiO3 single crystal (from Castech Crystals). The amplitude and phase image show 90° and 180° domain walls in BaTiO3. 10 µm scan. Imaged with the MFP-3D AFM.
Courtesy of V. R. Aravind, K. Seal, S. Kalinin, ORNL, and V. Gopalan, Pennsylvania State University