PFM amplitude overlaid on AFM topography (left) and PFM phase overlaid on topography (right) on (100) oriented BaTiO3 single crystal (from Castech Crystals). The amplitude and phase image show 90° and 180° domain walls in BaTiO3. 10 µm scan. Imaged with the MFP-3D AFM.
Courtesy of V. R. Aravind, K. Seal, S. Kalinin, ORNL, and V. Gopalan, Pennsylvania State University