Part of the Oxford Instruments Group

Interferometric Displacement Sensor (IDS)

The Interferometric Displacement Sensor (IDS) option for Asylum Research Cypher AFMs enables more quantitative Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) by eliminating the dominant source of artifacts. The ability to measure the electromechanical response without the influence of electrostatic artifacts enables both the unambiguous measurement of polarization switching hysteresis loops in ferroelectrics and, for the first time, highly repeatable measurements of the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient (deff).

Key Cypher IDS benefits:

  • Interferometric detection avoids PFM artifacts due to electrostatic cantilever-sample interactions.
  • More accurate, highly repeatable measurements of the electromechanical coupling coefficient (deff).
  • Avoids switching spectroscopy artifacts that cause hysteresis loops in non-ferroelectric materials.
  • Deflection noise floor that is 2-3× lower than typical OBD performance (typically <100 fm/√Hz).

Request Pricing Add to quote list

Cypher IDS Bibliography

Key papers explaining the Cypher IDS technology and advantages for Piezoresponse Force Microscopy:

A. Labuda and R. Proksch, “Quantitative measurements of electromechanical response with a combined optical beam and interferometric atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 106, no. 25, p. 253103, Jun. 2015,

L. Collins, Y. Liu, O. S. Ovchinnikova, and R. Proksch, “Quantitative Electromechanical Atomic Force Microscopy,” ACS Nano, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 8055–8066, Jul. 2019,

Papers applying the Cypher IDS to Hybrid organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites (e.g. MAPbI3):

Y. Liu et al., “Ferroic twin domains in metal halide perovskites,” MRS Advances, vol. 4, no. 51–52, pp. 2817–2830, Oct. 2019,

Y. Liu et al., “Chemical nature of ferroelastic twin domains in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite,” Nature Mater, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 1013–1019, Nov. 2018,

L. Collins, Y. Liu, O. S. Ovchinnikova, and R. Proksch, “Quantitative Electromechanical Atomic Force Microscopy,” ACS Nano, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 8055–8066, Jul. 2019,

Y. Liu et al., “Correlating Crystallographic Orientation and Ferroic Properties of Twin Domains in Metal Halide Perovskites,” ACS Nano, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 7139–7148, Apr. 2021,

I. M. Hermes et al., “Anisotropic carrier diffusion in single MAPbI 3 grains correlates to their twin domains,” Energy Environ. Sci., vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 4168–4177, 2020,

Papers applying the Cypher IDS to Ferroelectric inorganic metal oxide perovskites:

O. Paull et al., “Anisotropic epitaxial stabilization of a low-symmetry ferroelectric with enhanced electromechanical response,” Nat. Mater., vol. 21, pp. 74–80, 2022,

K. P. Kelley et al., “Tensor factorization for elucidating mechanisms of piezoresponse relaxation via dynamic Piezoresponse Force Spectroscopy,” npj Comput Mater, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 113, Dec. 2020,

K. P. Kelley et al., “Thickness and strain dependence of piezoelectric coefficient in BaTiO 3 thin films,” Phys. Rev. Materials, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 024407, Feb. 2020,

Y. Sharma et al., “Self‐Assembled Room Temperature Multiferroic BiFeO 3 ‐LiFe 5 O 8 Nanocomposites,” Adv. Funct. Mater., vol. 30, no. 3, p. 1906849, Jan. 2020,

Papers applying the Cypher IDS to Non-Perovskite Ferroelectrics (HfO2 and ZrO2):

S. S. Cheema et al., “Enhanced ferroelectricity in ultrathin films grown directly on silicon,” Nature, vol. 580, no. 7804, pp. 478–482, Apr. 2020,

Z. Zhang et al., “Epitaxial Ferroelectric Hf 0.5 Zr 0.5 O 2 with Metallic Pyrochlore Oxide Electrodes,” Adv. Mater., vol. 33, no. 10, p. 2006089, Mar. 2021,

L. Collins and U. Celano, “Revealing Antiferroelectric Switching and Ferroelectric Wakeup in Hafnia by Advanced Piezoresponse Force Microscopy,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, vol. 12, no. 37, pp. 41659–41665, Sep. 2020,

K.-W. Huang et al., “Sub-7-nm textured ZrO2 with giant ferroelectricity,” Acta Materialia, vol. 205, p. 116536, Feb. 2021,

Y. Liu, R. Proksch, C. Y. Wong, M. Ziatdinov, and S. V. Kalinin, “Disentangling Ferroelectric Wall Dynamics and Identification of Pinning Mechanisms via Deep Learning,” Advanced Materials, vol. 33, no. 43, p. 2103680, Oct. 2021,

Papers applying the Cypher IDS to 2D Materials:

M. Checa et al., “Revealing Fast Cu-Ion Transport and Enhanced Conductivity at the CuInP 2 S 6 –In 4/3 P 2 S 6 Heterointerface,” ACS Nano, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 15347–15357, Sep. 2022,

A. Lipatov et al., “Direct observation of ferroelectricity in two-dimensional MoS2,” npj 2D Mater Appl, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 18, Dec. 2022,

Papers applying the Cypher IDS to Cantilever Calibrations / Dynamics:

A. Labuda et al., “Static and dynamic calibration of torsional spring constants of cantilevers,” Review of Scientific Instruments, vol. 89, no. 9, p. 093701, Sep. 2018,

A. Labuda et al., “Calibration of higher eigenmodes of cantilevers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 87, no. 7, p. 073705, Jul. 2016,

A. Labuda, “Daniell method for power spectral density estimation in atomic force microscopy,” Review of Scientific Instruments, vol. 87, no. 3, p. 033704, Mar. 2016,

You may also be interested in...

Related Applications

Nanomaterial Growth and CharacterisationMechanical and Electrical PropertiesFailure Analysis FabricationMeasurement of Polymer and Polymer Phase PropertiesProcess Mineralogy and Chemical Analysis

Latest news