PFM amplitude overlaid on AFM topography (left), and phase overlaid on topography (right) of 1 µm thick PZT film with 50 nm Pt capacitor electrode. A bias was applied between the bottom and top electrodes and the tip was electrically isolated. Taken at a frequency of ~1 MHz, 5 µm scan. Imaged with the MFP-3D AFM.
Image courtesy of K. Seal, S. Kalinin, S. Jesse, ORNL, and P. Bintachitt, S. Trolier-McKinstry, Pennsylvania State University.