PFM of PPLN After Scratch Testing with the MFP NanoIndenter
Surface topography (top left) of PPLN after it has been purposefully scratched with different loading forces using the NanoIndenter. Bottom left image shows the associated phase signal indicative of the domain structure. The domain boundaries have been distorted by the scratches which implies a lattice change which, in turn, has affected the local polarizability. The right image shows a higher resolution scan where the phase has been overlaid onto the rendered topography, showing a close-up of the distortion in the domain structure. 10 µm scan (left top and bottom images). 1 µm scan (right). Imaged with the MFP-3D AFM.