Silver particles formed during FORC-IVz measurements
Dendritic silver particles formed on a silver-ion conductor substrate during FORC-IVz measurements. At each point in the array, a voltage bias waveform composed of a sequence of triangular pulses with increasing amplitudes was applied. When applying a negative bias to the sample, silver ions are drawn toward the tip. When a critical potential is exceeded, the electrochemical silver reduction process occur, i.e., a silver particle is formed. On the other hand, when applying a positive bias to the sample, the electrochemical silver oxidation (dissolution) process occurs and the silver particle is dissolved and the height reduces. By monitoring z-V as well as I-V curves, we can investigate electrochemical process in nanoscale volume comprehensively, for instance, Ag-ion conduction and Ag particle formation. Image courtesy of S. Yang, M.P. Paranthaman, and S. Kalinin, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Imaged on a Cypher, 12 µm scan size.