Time-dependent domain switching of PVDF-TrFE with PFM
Time-dependent domain switching of PVDF-TrFE. (a) Topography and (b) PFM phase images of as-grown polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) nanomesa. (c) PFM phase image of the same nanomesa after global switching due to a DC bias of +6 V. (d-f) Time-dependent polarization orientation switching from an applied voltage pulse of -5 V after (d) 1 s, (e) 4 s, and (f) 8 s. The approximate tip position is indicated by the black dot in (a). The high electromechanical activity of PVDF-TrFe makes it attractive in many transducer and sensor applications. Imaged with the MFP-3D AFM, 600 nm scan size, Z scale 30 nm (height) and 15° (PFM phase; minimum blue, maximum yellow). Ref. P. Sharma, T.J. Reece, S. Ducharme, and A. Gruverman, Nano Lett. 11, 1970 (2011).